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black porsche driving fast on wet miami street


Porsche Brakes


Pads & rotors wear the most. Grommets---that protect pistons from dust and moisture---wear from heat and age. A worn grommet exposes the brake caliper's piston allowing it to wear via rust. A rusted piston's performance degrades over time with the end result, in the worst case, being the piston seizing to the caliper---a potentially desperate condition for any sports car that's driven aggressively. This begs a recommendation: when assuming driver authority for a Porsche you're unfamiliar with, DO NOT assume the brakes are in proper working form. It's smart thinking to always check unfamiliar brakes before driving aggressively. This should be done with increasing levels of speed and braking loads applied for each tested level.

       Will old brake fluid serve to stop your Porsche? It will. It's possible to go for years without replacing brake fluid---but that's not advised for anyone that cares about maintaining their car's optimal braking capacity. In a nutshell, brake fluid degrades from heat, age, and moisture-gain. In turn, this degrades the "stiffness" brake fluid has. And it's this stiffness that translates into braking clarity a driver feels when brakes are applied. In contrast, old brake fluid lacks braking clarity. Because braking clarity degrades slowly over time, this condition generally goes un-noticed by the same driver of the same car.

        Best-practice: Flushing a brake system and replacing old hydraulic fluid with new should be accomplished every 15,000 - 25,000 miles as a best-practice procedure / or every 2 years. The earlier target being for Porsches driven under high performance braking loads. The latter for casual performance braking loads. This servicing of your Porsche will maintain a clean brake system, optimal braking clarity, and prevent internal corrosion of the brake system as a whole. As things go, slowing down or stopping is more important than how fast a Porsche can go. 


Wheel Alignment


The most common of all handling related adjustment is wheel alignment---the pointing of tires relative to each other and the center line of the car. There are three control aspects to alignment: toe, camber, caster. 

        Front and rear toe is typically set slightly inwards. This means tires do not run parrallel to the center line of your car---a tire's front is closer to the center line of the car than is the rear of the same tire. Reason for this setting is to compensate for the natural tendency tires have to turn outward from a car's center line when being driven.

        Camber is the angle of the tire relative to a perpendicular line of your Porsche's chassis. "Negative" camber is when tires have their tops leaning into the car. "Positive" camber is when tire tops lean outwards.

        Caster is the angle between the vertical steering line and the center point of a tire's ground contact. Caster is typically set positive. This helps a car self-steer based on the front tires ground contact being behind the steering axis.

Porsche front tires wearing on inside. Improper toe and/or camber setting is cause. Without correct wheel alignment, money on tires is wasted.

front tires looked at for wear at miami porsche specialist gp autowerks



Stance encompasses ride height, body rake, and wheel spread.

Regarding ride height, the lower the center of gravity, the better a Porsche handles. In simple physics: lower means there's less vertical mass/weight above a car's bottom plane for inertia to force straight when the car turns. As a Porsche's stance height is lowered, suspension travel is reduced. This tightens suspension creating a more stable, but harder feeling ride. This is optimal for competitive / high performance driving. For the street, it's a matter of handling preference. Apart from a tighter ride, less below-car clearance translates into the need for driving with increased road surface awareness for the pavement ahead. This is a constant focus when driving unfamiliar roads. 

        Rake refers to the pitch of your Porsche front-to-back. Ideally, the setting is a 2 degree nose-down incline. The purpose in this setting is to improve front wheel breaking. Given a Porsche's heavy weighting on the rear wheels, the front wheels are at an immediate disadvantage in terms of frictional contact force against the pavement when brakes are applied. Rake improves frictional contact of the front tires through the pre-angulation of the chassis. In simple terms, rake partially eliminates the nose down travel the chassis of a car goes through when braking. While this is not a tremendous stopping advancement, any performance gain when braking should be considered beneficial.

        Wheel spread is the distance between the outer contact points of the tires to the pavement measured side-to-side. Generally speaking, the greater the distance, the more stable a car's handling is. As spread increases, so too do wheel & tire widths.

Corner Balance


If you have a professional 4-wheel alignment with proper air pressure in all 4 tires and your car pulls to one side, there's a very high probability your Porsche's not properly corner balanced. Not only does this condition adversely effect steering in a straight line but also when cornering and braking. In a nutshell, the more unbalanced a Porsche's corner weighting is, the more poorly that car will handle.

          What is corner balance? It is the weight of a car as distributed to the pavement through each tire. In a perfect world, (with scales under each tire,) the front left & right side weight of your car would be equal with a driver in the driver's seat. Left & right rear weights would also be equal. Deviations from the perfect world are acceptable to a certain degree. The less deviation the better. Speak with any number of professionals concerning corner balancing tolerances and you'll get different deviation tolerance opinions. GP preference for street driven Porsches is a side-to-side deviation of 15 lbs (or less) in the front. 25 lbs (or less) in the rear. For racing, 10 lbs (or less) front as well as rear for medium competition. Equal side-to-side for serious competition.

          The weight of each corner is controlled by adjusting ride height at each corner. This might seem a simple matter but as one corner's weight is adjusted, the other corners weights change. (The higher the chassis' corner is, the greater the weight being placed on that particular corner. Inversely, the lower the chassis' corner is, the less weight there is on that corner.)

          Regardless of all other handling considerations, to truly handle as a Porsche is designed to, corner balance is a fundamental requirement.



Driving style has a great deal to do with what type of tires are most appropriate for a car. Hard compound tires are for casual drivers. Soft compound are for the more aggressive. 

          Tire profile also affects handling. Generally speaking, the lower a tire's profile, the higher the performance. Small profile changes do not require wheel changes. Beyond a certain point, a higher or lower profile will not fit existing wheels correctly. Nor will extremes fit in the space a Porsche's wheel wells allow. Modifications to accommodate tire size preferences can be made to some degree. Flared wheel wells for instance.

          Tire width contributes significantly to handling because more width means more contact with the pavement. Wheels, spacers, and fender flaring can come into play when modifying tire widths.

          Racing is another dimension entirely. Tire selection can and is elevated to a science. Pavement type, weather including ambient temperature, altitude, a track's composition including number and profile of corners, and driver preferences are all considerations. GP can offer competitive tire advice to help you out-think your competition.

suspension upgrade done to porsche 997 by miami porsche shop gp autowerks

Suspension upgrade in 997. RSS Tarmac Stage 2.

Porsche aerodynamic data. Speed is displayed in 7th column in kilometers per hour (V KPH.)

Click chart to enlarge.

Porsche Handling



Tuning your Porsche to handle according to your sensibilities. That may be a matter of new struts. Or, perhaps your interest calls for a more intensive approach---Harmonizing most if not all the performance attributes that define your Porsche's control characteristics. Brakes, suspension, wheel dimensions, tire-type, alignment, stance, corner balance, chassis rigidity, and aerodynamics where high speed driving is concerned---all attribute to how your car feels to you. With GT and GTP class winning race experience, GP is intimately familiar with the nuances of how each adjustable dimension of a Porsche needs to be co-operatively set to create the unique street or track feel you're looking for. From struts to comprehensive harmonic tuning, GP offers Master Porsche mechanical capabilities to refine your Porsche's handling to the way you want it.

Expert Porsche Attention For:








Corner Balance



Below: Example of Porsche 911 brakes that suffered from a combination of service-repair neglect and not being driven much. Performance of front right caliper (above) borders none existent due to frozen piston. Car pulls noticeably to left under braking---reason this owner's now attending brakes. Piston's grommet... disintegrating from age. Piston... rusting and seized to caliper. Pads removed from this brake assembly are at right above. Pad material is crumbling... one pad fell apart as you see it and did so without instigation. These are low quality / economy brake pads from Mintex.

Left: Replacement parts for brake system above. OEM calipers, vented/drilled rotors (upgrade), and low-dust brakes pads from EBC. While vented rotors were not absolutely necessary for this casually driven Porsche, the added cost is negligible compared to the improved braking power acquired. Customer was given non-vented rotor option and chose these. EBC Red Stuff were installed on basis of their low-dust performance and this car being a street driven Porsche. Is important for brake pads to be bedded properly when installed as I always do.



The tighter your suspension is set up the less your Porsche's chassis rotates on it's axis---the less it has to lean into corners and then has to recover. By minimizing lean, the less mass there is moving about. This reduction of mass in motion translates into a Porsche handling with greater clarity and precision.

          Newer cars have suspension systems that can be adjusted on the fly. This provides a refined ride under changing conditions as a Porsche's on board computer is capable of making automatic ride adjustments. Some degree of suspension adjustment is also available through a car's driver preference settings. Classic cars are locked into suspension settings given existing torsion and sway bar types, shock type & configuration, ride height, rake and corner balancing. All these aspects affect how your Porsche handles.

New front and rear Porsche brake calipers being installed at miami porsche shop of gp autowerks
New front and rear drilled Porsche brake rotors being installed at miami porsche shop of gp autowerks
cushioned side of brake pads being installed by miami porsche shop gp autowerks
friction side of brake pads being installed by miami porsche shop gp autowerks


porsche brakes being serviced at miami porsche shop of gp autowerks
brake pads are being replaced at miami porsche shop of gp autowerks

Chassis Rigidity


The stiffer a chassis is the less twist there is in when cornering. Chassis twist makes a car feel rubbery in corners---unwanted. Among Porsches, coupes are more rigid than Targas and convertibles given coupe roof structure.

          To tighten a Porsche's chassis' rigidity, cross bars can be fitted to the cabin's interior behind the seats as well as in the frunk. Rigidity for racing purposes is accomplished with roll cages and more aggressive cross-bracing front and rear.

          The handling difference between a braced Porsche and non-braced is immediately apparent in the feel of it.



Differences in car form can aide or hinder a desired aerodynamic effect. And quite often one effect comes with sacrificing another. The chart (at left on desktop website only) shows aerodynamic effects for various Porsche car configurations. Click chart to enlarge it.


Porsche experience, GT and GTP class racing credentials including crew and Crew Chief leadership translates into GP offering the skilled handling refinement needed to make your Porsche handle as you want it to for street, or competition.

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Following the 356 series, Porsche took a quantum leap forward in the design of their next rear engine sports car initially designated the 901. Peugeot objected to this branding on grounds of having rights in France to model names with three numbers with a zero in the middle. Rather than sell the new model with a different name in France, Porsche changed the zero to a one, and so the 911.  

First Porsche 911.jpg

Ferdinand Alexander (Butzi) Porsche, the 911's lead designer, with the first model 911, circa 1964. While much credit is given Butzi Porsche, it should be known that Erwin Komenda also played a key role in the 911's body design---as well as many other Porsche models. Komenda was with the company since it's founding in 1931 serving as head of the company's Bodywork Design Department until his departure from Porsche in 1966 over design disagreements concerning the 911. Komenda was applauded by many for his forward thinking and independent behaviour.


A Formula One racing car is seen with clearly negative camber. This benefits corner handling when turning by creating increased tire surface contact with the track.

Front wheel camber for racing is often seen clearly negative. This benefits corner handling as the outside tire---during a turn---goes perpendicular thereby providing maximum contact with the pavement (when it's needed most.)

2003 porsche boxster brake flush and bleed done at miami porsche shop of gp autowerks

Brake system flush & bleed being performed on a 2003 986 Boxter S. Replacing brake fluid entirely is done every 2 years as standard maintenance. This serves to rid the system of internal moisture---moisture that will rust brake system internals. Also serves to eliminate spongy pedal that results from moisture compressing in system when brakes are applied.

porsche drilled brake rotor being repaired at miami porsche shop of gp autowerks

Vented / drilled Porsche brake rotors. Holes prevent hot gasses from building up between brake pad and rotor surfaces. This allows improved contact between these surfaces. Holes also significantly increase total rotor surface area resulting in improved heat shedding.

red porsche 930 before miami porsche specialist rake adjustment
red porsche 930 after miami porsche specialist rake adjustment

Stock ride height and rake compared to the same car lowered and raked 2 degrees. All else being equal, the lowered & raked version of this 930 will handle noticeably better than its stock iteration due to a lower center of gravity, tighter suspension, improved aerodynamic ground effects, and 2 degree rake for braking.

1976 911 made into a widebody

Wheel spread here nears the max that's suitable for a 911-type platform. Dimensionally, this mod increases stock spread by more than a foot. Handling, particularly cornering, is tremendously improved given this refinement.

miami porsche corner balancing done by porsche specialist george perdomo
readout of miami porsche corner weights

At top, a Porsche's left rear corner sits on corner scale with the driver's weight in the driver's seat. Read-out for this street Porsche looks good---front side-to-side is within 4 lbs... rear is within 16 lbs. Where corner balancing alone is concerned, this car will handle exceptionally well.


Porsche® Winter Driving:
Ice Force

Video presentation courtesy of Porsche N.A. Permission on file.

porsche jumping in the air somewhere in europe

In Europe... 1975 Turbo air time!


Single, triangulated, X, X triangulated strut bracing. The more bracing the more rigidity. Elephant Racing bracing shown.

Porsche Rigidity Strut Brace Single.jpg
Porsche Rigidity Strut Brace Triangulate
Porsche Rigidity Strut Brace X.jpg
Porsche Rigidity Strut Brace X Triangula


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Disclaimer: Porsche, the Porsche crest, and Porsche car model numbers & names are under licensed use by Porsche Cars North America, Inc. (PCNA) from the owner Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche Aktiengesellschaft, Porsche AG ("Porsche.") The PCA logo is the property of the "Porsche Club of America." The "Porsche Museum" name is the property of Porsche. No association or affiliation with Porsche, PCNA, The Porsche Museum, or PCA is intended or implied by GP AutoWerks, an independent Miami-based Porsche service, repair, rebuild & PPI shop that offers comprehensive Master Porsche mechanical care for classic & contemporary Porsche sports cars---356 through 991, 928, 944, Boxster, and Cayman. Editorial content is provided in this website including both text & photos. Editorial photos are presented with a box rule around them. Any use of the word "safe" or "safety" in this website holds a car's owner and/or driver ultimately responsible for all matters concerning the standing, driven, or otherwise in use vehicle. Credits: Videos are Porsche productions presented for educational & entertainment purposes only. Permission for presentation is on file. Outlined photos are editorial content. Photos of Miami Porsche service, repair, rebuilding and PPI depict the property of GP AutoWerks' customers. All such photos are used with the expressed permission of GP AutoWerks' customers whose permission is into perpetuity. Photography, unless credited otherwise, is © 2015-2020 Karl Hansen. All rights reserved. Photo captions are provided to reflect photo content and credits appear where due.

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Miami Porsche Service, Repair, Rebuild & PPI  |  GP AutoWerks

Page: Handling

mobile device header photo for handling page: porsche front suspension


Your Porsche's ride

tuned for your

street or racing



What's possible in order to improve your ride? Test drive your Porsche with GP beside you. Express the handling issue(s) you sense or how you'd prefer your Porsche to feel. Either way, what you'll get is handling advice that cuts to the chase based on 30+ years of Porsche street & winning-track experience. You'll know what's possible to achieve in regard to the feel your looking for, and how to get there. If there's an issue with your car's handling, that issue will be found and proven to you prior to any repairs. From minor tweeks to improve your ride, to comprehensive car-wide tuning for the feel your want... your car's handling needs are covered with genuine Porsche expertise at GP AutoWerks.

Black Porsche in City_edited.jpg







Corner Balance



To know more about your Porsche's handling attributes and what options there are to improve your feel for the road, call. Or, visit the desktop site. There's much more Porsche handling info, photos, and a variety of curious Porsche facts waiting for you there. Visit:

PORSCHE Service / Repair / Rebuild / PPI


rss tarmac stage 2 suspension upgrade in porsche 997 in miami
miami porsche with rear wing for added downforce at high speed
1974 miami-owned porsche carrera in the rocky mountains
porsche low profile tire
miami porsche in gp autowerks shop having front drilled rotors inspected
porsche driving fast in miami after harmonic handling refinement
Porsche Logo on Porsche Service Repair P
Porsche Club of America Logo on Porsche

Porsche, the Porsche crest and Porsche model names are the property of Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche Aktiengesellschaft, Porsche AG ("Porsche") and is under licensed use by Porsche Cars North America, PCNA. The PCA logo is the property of the Porsche Club of America. No affiliation with either Porsche or the Porsche Club of America is intended or implied by GP AutoWerks, an independent Porsche service, repair, rebuild & PPI shop located in Miami, FL., U.S.A. Any use of the word "safe" or "safety" in this mobile site holds a car's owner and/or driver ultimately responsible for all matters concerning the operational safety of the car being driven or otherwise used. Please see desktop website for full disclaimer and credits.


Website structure © 2015-2022 GP AutoWerks. Website content unless credited otherwise is © 2015-2022 Karl Hansen. All rights reserved.

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